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What is a Capacitor?

capacitor
Capacitors are passive electronic components that provide a stationary source of power in electrical circulation systems. There are many types of capacitors such as the high voltage one varying from 500V-15KV. These products usually consist of two conducting plates that are often separated by an insulating material. High voltage capacitors are suitable for high voltage power supplies, multipliers and other extremely high voltage applications. A conductor may be in the form of foil, metal or an electrolyte. High voltage capacitors are typically used in electrical circuits and unlike a resistor an ideal capacitor does no waste energy.

How a Capacitor Works

This part may get a little technical but when a current flows into a capacitor the charges get trapped and can’t get past the insulating dielectric. This makes the capacitor overall negatively charged although then the large mass of negative charge on the one of the two plates forces away on the remaining plate making it positively charged. The positive and negative charges on the two plates then attract as it is commonly known opposites attract.

Types of Capacitors

There all sorts of capacitors out there not just high voltage ones. Each type of capacitor will have its pros and cons and it’s all about finding the best one that fits your specific needs. The first factor to take into consideration is the size. A capacitor can be something that is tiny or it can be the biggest component in a circuit. The next main factor would be the leakage current; every capacitor is prone to the odd bit of leakage. Leakage causes the huge energy storage to drain away.
The next of the five main factors is voltage. Each and every capacitor has a maximum voltage that can be processed across it. Exceeding the maximum voltage can and will end in destroying the capacitor. The penultimate factor is resistance. Capacitors aren’t always 100% conductive and sometimes resistance can become a problem and end in power loss. The last factor is tolerance capacitors don’t have an exact capacitance they are usually nominated one and this value may vary.

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